The History of Reflexology
It is known that the history of Reflexology stretches far into
antiquity because illustrations, texts, and artifacts show that,
in at least some form, manipulation of feet for positive purposes
was practised in the ancient cultures of China, Egypt, India, Japan
and Russia. Unfortunately, however, relatively little is known about
the attitudes, theories, or even the names given to such practises
during those times.
There are various accounts of the practise of massage/manipulation
of the feet being performed across Europe during the Middle Ages.
Harry Bond Bressler argued that a form of Reflexology was practised
across the European social classes during the 14th Century. It is
also claimed that the Florentine Sculptor Cellini (1500 - 1571)
used pressure on hands and feet to relieve pain. A book about this was published in 1582.
Modern Reflexology emerged in the United States during the early
years of the twentieth century and was initially known as "Zone
Therapy". In 1913 the American surgeon William Fitzgerald (1872 - 1942) described
a system of zones on the hands, feet and tongue that he argued were
related to other parts of the body. Medical journalist Dr. Edwin Bowers recommended that Fitzgerald's
method be termed "Zone Therapy". Subsequently, other American
medical doctors, incl. George Starr White and Joe and Elizabeth
Riley also wrote books on the subject. Fitzgerald extended this
work and publicised it by teaching courses and seminars on the subject.
Eunice Ingham was an American Massage Therapist/Physiotherapist
who studied zone therapy under the supervision of Dr. Joe Riley.
She went on to become the main pioneer of modern reflexology (though
zone theory remains the basis of foot reflexology and is usually
incorporated into treatments). During the 1930s Eunice Ingham refined
'Zone Theory' into 'Foot Reflexology'. She published two books,
"Stories the Feet can Tell" in 1938, and "Stories
the Feet have told" in 1963.
In 1966 Doreen Bailey, a former student of Eunice Ingham, returned
to England from America and became the pioneer of Reflexology in
There are also many modern contributors to the field of Reflexology.
These include Ann Gillanders 
Chris Stormer's analysis of how to interpret aspects of different
parts of the feet 
is now well-known, and a standard text used by many Reflexology
Inge Dougans is also known for her work concerning the interrelationship
between Reflexology (specifically the reflex points/zones) and the
Meridian Lines usually associated with Chinese Medicine .
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