Polio immunisation campaign launched in West Africa
Fifty-three million children under five are expected to be reached across eight
West African countries in a coordinated polio immunisation campaign that launched
The synchronised cross-border initiative will take place in eight countries
simultaneously: Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Mali, Niger,
Togo, and Nigeria.
Reaching every child
The goal of the campaign is to reach every child, even in the most remote rural
areas or in the most populated urban areas. More than 162,000 trained immunisers
(67,000 for Nigeria alone) will aim to reach every child with a polio vaccine.
A total of 66 million doses of vaccine (33 million for Nigeria alone) are available
for each round of the campaign.
The campaign is scheduled in two rounds: 27 February to 2 March, and 27 to
30 March 2009. (In Ghana, the first round took place from 12 to 14 February.)
During each of the rounds, some teams will go door-to-door while others will
be in schools and health centres.
Outreach activities leading up to the campaign include the involvement of local
authorities, traditional and religious leaders; interpersonal communication
at the community level by social workers and volunteers; community mobilisation;
and the broadcast of TV and radio spots.
In 2008, a polio outbreak in northern Nigeria spread to six countries in West
Africa. The wild polio virus had already re-infected Niger in 2007, as well
as Chad and Cameroon in Central Africa. The campaign aims at reaching a critical
mass of polio immunisation coverage in order to stop the spread of the wild
polio virus. The highest priority is to reach every child in Nigeria and in
the high-risk areas across the region (districts where cases where reported
in re-infected countries, districts with low routine immunisation coverage and
districts where new case surveillance is weak).
The key to stopping polio in its tracks is comprehensive and coordinated vaccination
campaigns and cross-border planning. Undertaking the campaign simultaneously
in eight countries reduces the risk of missing children, particularly in a context
where there are likely to be large movements of populations.
The campaign mobilises the teams of the health ministries of all the countries,
supported by UNICEF, WHO, Rotary International and other partners as well as
volunteers, traditional and religious chiefs and the media, and is being organizsed
as part of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. The total cost of the campaign
is $29 million for the seven countries, with an additional $38 million in Nigeria.
This amount includes the cost of vaccine, operational cost, social mobilisation
About the Global Polio Eradication Initiative
This campaign is part of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, a partnership
spearheaded by WHO, Rotary International, the US Centre for Diseases Control
and Prevention and UNICEF. The polio eradication coalition includes governments
of countries affected by polio; private sector foundations (United Nations Foundation,
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation); development banks (World Bank); bilateral
donor governments; the European Commission; the International Red Cross and
Red Crescent societies and non-governmental organisations as well as corporate
partners. Volunteers in developing countries also play a key role. For more
information go to www.polioeradication.org.
Poliomyelitis (polio) is a highly infectious viral disease, which mainly affects
children under five. The virus attacks the nervous system and is transmitted
through contaminated food, water and faeces. One in two-hundred infections lead
to irreversible paralysis, usually in the legs. Among those paralysed, 5 -10
per cent die when their breathing muscles become immobilised. Polio cannot be
cured and can only be prevented by immunisation. WHO recommends that infants
receive three doses of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) in the first year of life.
Today, only four countries in the world, Afghanistan, India, Nigeria and Pakistan,
remain polio-endemic, down from more than 125 in 1988. In 2008, 803 cases of
wild polio virus were reported in Nigeria and a total of 41 cases of imported
wild polio virus were reported in Benin (6), Burkina Faso (6), Côte d'Ivoire
(1), Ghana (8), Mali (1), Niger (13) and Togo (3). All imported cases are type
1 polio virus, except one case in Benin that was type 3 polio virus.
As of 13 February, 26 cases of wild polio virus have been reported in West
Africa - Nigeria (25) and Niger (1).