E311 is an additive approved by the EU (European Union).
It is used as a synthetic antioxidant in fatty food and drink products
to prevent rancidity in oils), as well as in cosmetics.
The common name for E311 is octyl gallate.
E311 is produced by the esterification (production of an
ester by reacting alcohol and acid) of octanol and gallic acid, produced
in plant tannins. E310 is unstable at high temperatures,
which limits its use in food and drink products.
E311 is broken down back to gallic acid and octanol in the intestine.
Gallic acid has been known to cause skin irritation, such as eczema,
as well as hyperactivity and irritation to the stomach lining in high
Examples of food/drink products that may include E311:
Cereals, milk, cheese, salad dressings, fats and oils.