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Depression

Definition of Depression (in the context of the term to describe a movement of the body):

Depression is the downward movement of structures of the body, e.g. depression of a shoulder joint lowers the corresponding arm vertically downwards.

The movement of depression is the opposite of the movement of elevation.
The word depression may be used to describe a movement so it could be used in a phrase such as "depression of the shoulder is when the shoulder joint, together with the arm attached to it, moves downwards".

A depressor is a muscle that can act to cause a depression movement. E.g. the facial muscles the depressor labii inferiori draw downwards the skin tissues at the outer edges below the lower-lip to form a "sad" shape, i.e. the opposite position of the lower lip to that seen when the person is smiling.


Example of Depression (movement)
:

Depression of the shoulder blades (scapulae):

The term "scapular depression" is used to refer to the downward movement of the shoulders, e.g. when using the muscles of the shoulder girdle to lift weights using a pulley-system (weights training machine) as shown in the following video clip.



For a single list summarizing all the movements of the body included in this section - see the study page about types of movements at joints.


Bones and Joints: A Guide for Students

Foundations of Physical Education, Exercise Science, and Sport by Deborah Wuest and Jennifer Fisette

Sport and Exercise Science: An Introduction by Murray Griffin and Philip Watkins

See also list of definitions of muscle terminology (words used to convey information about specific muscles) - useful for studying human anatomy and physiology, sports sciences e.g. physical education (PE), physiotherapy, and other health sciences.

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