The Ciliary Processes are
located in each eye in the human body.
They are one of the three "zones" of the ciliary
body (connecting the choroid
with the iris).
The ciliary processes are formed by the plaiting and
folding inward of some of the layers of the choroid. Together they form
60-80 radial ridges located behind the iris (which is the coloured part
of the eye), and around the margin of the lens.
There are large and small ciliary processes, the "large" ones
numbering approx. 66% of the total and being approx. 2.5mm long, and the
"small" ones filling the gaps between the larger ones.
The anterior (front) surface of the ciliary processes
is turned towards the back of the iris and their posterior (back) surface
is connected to the suspensory ligament of the lens.
Generally, the ciliary processes have a similar structure
to those of the choroid. However, although the ciliary processes do also
include some stellate pigment-cells, there are fewer than in the choroid
The subject of visual (also known as "physiological") optics
is a key component of many courses within the fields of both biology and
physics. It is also an essential consideration in the design of displays
and control units used in many applications from televisions and mobile
telephones to advanced aircraft. In the context of engineering "visual
optics" is one of several medical and psychological topics in the
important area of "Human Factors".